Rats and mice are destructive pests that can spread disease, contaminate food, and destroy property. After a disaster, the number of rats and mice is often reduced, so illness or injuries associated with rats and other small rodents are uncommon in the short term.

Rodents that survive a disaster often move to new areas. It will take time for rodents to regroup, reorganize their social behavior, become familiar with their new environment, find safe haven, locate food and water, and memorize their movements. Colony building and reproduction will begin only when their new ecosystem has stabilized. This typically takes 6 to 10 months under favorable conditions. As the rodent population grows and resettles, people have a greater chance of being exposed to the diseases carried by rodents. Rodent urine and dander also contain allergens that can cause allergic reactions or trigger asthma symptoms in sensitive persons and more than 9,000 persons are treated in emergency departments annually for rat or mouse bites.

Indications that rodents are present—aside from seeing either live or dead ones—are rodent droppings, runways, rub marks, and tracks. Other signs include burrows, nests, gnawings, food scraps, rat hair, urine spots, rodent noises, insects that are associated with rodents, odors from urine, or dead rodents. Rats and mice are different animals and methods used to control them will differ.

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